Introduction to CloudForms and ManageIQ

Welcome to this guide to mastering the Automate feature of both CloudForms and ManageIQ. Before we begin our journey through Automate, it’s worth taking a general tour of their capabilities to establish a context for all that we’ll be learning. As ManageIQ is the upstream open source project for Red Hat CloudForms (we’ll discuss this later in the chapter), the two products are very similar.

What are CloudForms and ManageIQ?

CloudForms and ManageIQ are both cloud management platforms, that are also rather good at managing traditional server virtualization products such as VMware vSphere or oVirt. This broad capability makes them ideal as hybrid cloud managers, able to manage both public clouds, and on-premise private clouds and virtual infrastructures. They provides a single management interface into a hybrid environment, enabling cross-platform orchestration to be achieved with relative simplicity.

Although ManageIQ was originally designed as a virtualization and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) cloud manager, CloudForms 4.0/ManageIQ Capablanca introduced support for Docker Container management, including Red Hat’s OpenShift Enterprise 3.x Platform as a Service (PaaS) cloud solution.


Requirements of a Cloud Management Platform

Cloud management platforms (CMPs) are software tools that allow for the integrated management of public, private and hybrid cloud environments. There are several requirements that are generally considered necessary for a product to be classified as a cloud management platform. These are:

  • Self-service catalog-based ordering of services

  • Metering and billing of cloud workloads

  • Policy-based workload optimisation and management

  • Workflow orchestration and automation

  • The capability to integrate with external tools and systems

  • Role-based access control (RBAC) and multitenancy


Providers

CloudForms and ManageIQ manage each cloud, container or virtual environment using modular subcomponents called providers. Each provider contains the functionality required to connect to and monitor its specific target platform, and this provider specialization enables common cloud management functionality to be abstracted into the core product. In keeping with the manager of managers concept, providers communicate with their respective underlying cloud or infrastructure platform using the native APIs published for the platform manager (such as VMware vCenter Server using the vSphere SOAP API).

The pluggable nature of the provider architecture makes it relatively straightforward to develop new providers to support additional cloud and infrastructure platforms. For example the Botvinnik, Capablanca and Darga versions of ManageIQ have between them added eight new providers, with more currently under development.

Providers are broadly divided into categories, and as of CloudForms 4.1/ManageIQ Darga these are Cloud, Infrastructure, Configuration Management, Networking and Container.

Cloud Providers

Cloud providers enable us to manage three public clouds; Amazon Web Services, Google Compute Engine, and Microsoft Azure. There is also a cloud provider that can connect to and manage a private or on-premise Red Hat OpenStack Platform (OSP) cloud (this is the OverCloud in the case that OSP is managed by the Red Hat OpenStack Platform Director).

Infrastructure Providers

Infrastructure providers enable us to manage three traditional infrastructure products: VMware vCenter Server, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization Manager, and Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager. There is also an infrastructure provider that can connect to and manage a private or on-premise Red Hat OpenStack Platform Director UnderCloud.

Configuration Management Providers

Configuration management providers enable us to use the capabilities of Red Hat Satellite (or Foreman), and Ansible Tower for configuration management. The Satellite provider enables us to use Foreman host groups, and extends the provisioning capability to include bare-metal (i.e. non-virtual) servers. The Ansible Tower provider allows us to run Ansible jobs as part of an Automate workflow.

Networking Providers

CloudForms 4.1 and ManageIQ Darga ship with a networking provider for OpenStack Neutron. This is automatically configured if we add an OpenStack cloud provider.

Container Providers

CloudForms 4.1 and ManageIQ Darga ship with container providers that can connect to and manage three Docker container managers; Atomic, Kubernetes and OpenShift.

Mixing and Matching Providers

When deploying CloudForms or ManageIQ in our enterprise we often connect to several providers. We can illustrate this with an example company.

Company XYZ Inc.

Our example organization has an established VMware vSphere 5.5 virtual environment, containing many hundreds of virtual machines. This virtual infrastructure is typically used for the stable, long-lived virtual machines, and many of the organisation’s critical database, directory services and file servers are situated here. Approximately half of the VMware virtual machines run Red Hat Enterprise Linux [1], and to facilitate the patching, updating, and configuration management of these VMs, the organization has a Satellite 6 server.

Company XYZ is a large producer of several varieties of widget, and the widget development test cycle involves creating many short-lived instances in an OpenStack private cloud, to cycle through the test suites. The developers like to have a service catalog from which they can order one of the many widget test environments, and at any time there may be several hundred instances running various test configurations.

The web developers in the company are in the process of re-developing the main Internet web portal as a scalable public cloud workload hosted in Amazon Web Services (AWS). The web portal provides a rich product catalog, online documentation, knowlegebase and ecommerce shopping area to customers.

This organization uses CloudForms to manage the workflows that provision virtual machines into the vSphere virtual infrastructure, Amazon Web Services, and OpenStack. The users have a self-service catalog to provision individual virtual machine workloads into either VMware or Amazon, or entire test suites into OpenStack. CloudForms orchestration workflows help with the maintenance of an image factory that keeps virtual machine images updated and published as VMware templates, Amazon Machine Images (AMIs) and OpenStack Glance images.

As part of the provisoning process CloudForms also manages the integration workflows that allow newly provisoned virtual machines to be automatically registered with the Satellite 6 server, and an in-house configuration management database. This ensures that newly provisioned virtual machines are configured by Puppet according to server role, patched with the latest updates, with a full inventory visible to the help-desk system.

Rich Picture
Figure 1. CloudForms providers and workflows


The Capabilities

We’ve already mentioned some of the capabilities of CloudForms and ManageIQ such as orchestration, a service catalog, and integration workflows. Let’s have a look at the four main areas of capability: Insight, Control, Automate and Integrate.

Insight

Insight is the process of gathering intelligence on our virtual or cloud infrastructure, so that we can manage it effectively. It is one of the most fundamental but important capabilities of the product.

When we first connect a provider, CloudForms and ManageIQ begin a process of discovery of the virtual or cloud infrastructure. An infrastructure provider will collect and maintain details of the entire virtual infrastructure, including clusters, hypervisors, datastores, virtual machines, and the relationships between each of them. Cloud vendors do not typically expose infrastructure details, so cloud providers will typically gather and monitor tenant-specific information on cloud components such as instances, images, availability zones, networks, and security groups.

Both tools also store and process any real-time or historical performance data that the provider exposes. They use the historical data to calculate useful trend-based analytics such as image or VM right-sizing suggestions, and capacity planning recommendations. They use the real-time performance statistics and power-on/off events to give us insight into workload utilisation, and also use this information to calculate metering and chargeback costs.

One of the roles of a CloudForms or ManageIQ server is that of Smart Proxy. A server with this role has the ability to initiate a SmartState Analysis on a virtual machine, template, instance, or even Docker container. SmartState Analysis (also known as fleecing) is a patented technology that scans the container or virtual machine’s disk image to examine its contents. The scan discovers users and groups that have been added, applications that have been installed, and searches for and optionally retrieves the contents of specified configuration files or Windows Registry settings. This is an agentless operation that doesn’t require the virtual machine to be powered on.

Both CloudForms and ManageIQ allow us to apply tags to infrastructure or cloud components to help us identify and classify our workloads or resources in a way that makes sense to our organisation. These tags might specify an owning department, cost centre, operating system type, location, or workload classification for example. We can create powerful filters in the WebUI that allow us to display managed components such as VMs along organisational and business lines, rather than physical placement or characteristic.

To round off the summary of their Insight ability, CloudForms and ManageIQ also have a powerful reporting capability that can be used to create online or exportable CSV or PDF reports.

Control

We can use the control functionality of CloudForms and ManageIQ to enforce security and configuration policies, using the information retrieved from insight. For example the SmartState Analysis of a virtual machine might discover a software package containing a known critical security vulnerability. We could implement a control policy to shut down the VM, or migrate it to a hypervisor in a quarantined network so that it can be patched.

Using real-time performance statistics we might configure alerts to warn us when critical virtual machines are running at unusually high utilisation levels. Many monitoring tools can do this, but with ManageIQ we could also use such an alert to trigger an Automate workflow to dynamically scale out the application workload by provisioning more servers.

We can monitor for compliance with corporate security policies, by gathering and intelligently processing the contents of selected configuration files. In this way we might detect if SELinux has been disabled for example, or that sshd is running with an insecure configuration. We can run such compliance rules automatically, and mark a virtual machine as noncompliant, whereupon its status will be immediately visible in the WebUI.

Automate

One of the most powerful features of CloudForms and ManageIQ are their ability to automate the orchestration of workloads and resources in our virtual infrastructure or cloud. Automate allows us to create and use powerful workflows using the Ruby scripting language or Ansible jobs, and features provided by the Automation Engine such as state machines and service models.

CloudForms and ManageIQ come preconfigured with a large number of out-of-the-box workflows [2], to orchestrate such things as:

  • Provisioning or scaling out of workloads, such as virtual machines or cloud instances

  • Provisioning or scaling out of infrastructure, such as bare-metal hypervisors or compute nodes

  • Scaling back or retirement of virtual machine or cloud instances

Each of these is done in the context of comprehensive role-based access control (RBAC), with administrator-level approval of selected Automate operations required where appropriate.

We can extend or enhance these default workflows and create whole new orchestration workflows to meet our specific requirements.

Service Catalog

We can create self-service catalogs to permit users to order our orchestration workflows with a single button click. Automate comes with an interactive service dialog designer that we use to build rich dialogs, containing elements such as text boxes, radio buttons or drop-down lists. These elements can be dynamically prepopulated with values that are specific and relevant to the logged-in user or workload being ordered.

Integrate

As an extension of its Automate capability, CloudForms and ManageIQ are able to connect to and Integrate with many Enterprise tools and systems. Both systems come with Ruby Gems to enable automation scripts to connect to both RESTful and SOAP APIs, as well as libraries to connect to several SQL and LDAP databases, and the ability to run remote PowerShell scripts on Windows servers.

Typical integration actions might be to extend the virtual machine provisioning workflow to retrieve and use an IP address from a corporate IP address management (IPAM) solution; to create a new cconfiguration item (CI) record in the central configuration management database (CMDB), or to create and update tickets in the enterprise Service Management tool, such as ServiceNow.

The Appliance

To simplify installation, both CloudForms are ManageIQ are distributed as fully installed virtual machine templates, often just referred to as Appliances for convenience. An appliance comes pre-configured with everything we need. A CloudForms 4.2 appliance runs RHEL 7.2 (CentOS 7.2 in the case of ManageIQ), with PostgreSQL 9.4, Rails 5.0, the CloudForms/ManageIQ application, and all associated Ruby gems installed. Appliances are downloadable as a virtual machine image template in formats suitable for VMware, Red Hat Enterprise Virtualization, OpenStack, Microsoft’s System Center Virtual Machine Manager or Azure cloud, and Google Compute Engine. They are also available as a Docker container image.

Ruby and Rails

The core "evmserverd" application is witten in Ruby on Rails, and uses PostgreSQL as its database. When we use the Automate capability of CloudForms or ManageIQ we work extensively with the Ruby language, and write scripts that interact with a Ruby object model defined for us by the Automation Engine. We certainly don’t need to be Rails developers however (we don’t really need to know anything about Rails), but as we’ll see in [peeping-under-the-hood], some understanding of Rails concepts can make it easier to understand the object model, and what happens behind the scenes when we run our scripts.

Note
Why Rails? Ruby on Rails is a powerful development framework for database-centric web-based applications. It is popular for open source product development, for example Foreman, one of the core components of Red Hat’s Satellite 6.x product, is also a Rails application.

Projects, Products and Some History

Red Hat is an open source company, and its products are derived from one or more "upstream" open source projects. ManageIQ is the upstream project for Red Hat CloudForms.

ManageIQ (the Project)

The ManageIQ project releases a new version every six months (approximately). Each version is named alphabetically after a chess Grand Master, and so far these have been Anand, Botvinnik, Capablanca, and Darga. At the time of writing, Darga is the current stable release, and Euwe is in development.

Red Hat CloudForms (the Product)

Red Hat CloudForms 1.0 was originally a suite of products comprising CloudForms System Engine, CloudForms Cloud Engine and CloudForms Config Server, each with its own upstream project.

When Red Hat acquired ManageIQ (a privately held company) in late 2012, it decided to discontinue development of the original CloudForms 1.0 projects [3], and base a new version, CloudForms 2.0, on the much more capable and mature ManageIQ Enterprise Virtualization Manager (EVM) 5.x product. EVM 5.1 was re-branded as CloudForms Management Engine 5.1.

It took Red Hat approximately 18 months from the time of the ManageIQ acquisition to make the source code ready to publish as an open source project. Once completed, the ManageIQ project was formed and development was started on the Anand release.

CloudForms Management Engine (the Appliance)

CloudForms Management Engine is the name of the CloudForms virtual appliance that we download from redhat.com. The most recent versions of CloudForms Management Engine have been based on corresponding ManageIQ project releases. The relative versions and releases are summarised in the following table:

Table 1. Summary of the relative project and product versions
ManageIQ project release ManageIQ sprints CloudForms Management Engine version CloudForms version

5.1

2.0

5.2

3.0

Anand

1 - 12

5.3

3.1

Botvinnik

13 - 22

5.4

3.2

Capablanca

23 - 33

5.5

4.0

Darga

34 - 42

5.6

4.1

Euwe

43 -

5.7

4.2

Summary

This chapter has introduced both CloudForms and ManageIQ at a fairly high level, but has hopefully established a product context in the mind of the reader. The remainder of the book focuses specifically on the Automate functionality of the two tools. Let’s roll up our sleeves and get started!


1. CloudForms and ManageIQ are virtual machine operating system neutral; they can manage Windows, Red Hat, Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu or SUSE VMs (or their derivatives) with equal ease
2. CloudForms actually ships with supplementary automation scripts that are not in ManageIQ
3. CloudForms System Engine didn’t completely disappear. It was based on the upstream Katello project, which now forms a core part of Red Hat’s Satellite 6.x product

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